The author wrote in a structure that the sins of God’s people are denounced, followed by the declaration of punishment. After executing the judgment, the Lord will provide salvation to them.

Background of Micah’s period

Micah lived through 3 kingships of Judah (Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah) (1:1). Jotham king of Judah reigned 16 years and was succeeded by his son Ahaz. (II Kings 15:32-33,38) Ahaz reigned 16 years and was succeeded by his son Hezekiah. (II Kings 16:2,20) Hoshea, the last king of Israel, began to reign over Israel in the 12th year of Ahaz. In the 9th year of Hoshea, Samaria was conquered by Assyria, which was in the 5th year of Hezekiah. (II Kings 17:1,6)

Sins of God’s people

  1. set up high places and worship idols (1:5,7)

  2. hire harlots (1:7)

  3. devise iniquity (2:1)

  4. take fields and houses by violence (2:2)

  5. pull off robe and garment from passers-by (2:8)

  6. cast out women from their houses (2:9)

  7. took away glory from children (2:9)

  8. lied to people with false prophesy (2:11)

  9. heads and princes pervert justice and love evil (3:1-2)

  10. eat the flesh of God’s people and chop them in pieces (3:3)

  11. prophets make God’s people err (3:5)

  12. heads and princes abhor judgment and pervert equity (3:9)

  13. build city with blood and iniquity (3:10)

  14. heads judge for reward, priests teach for hire, prophets divine (占卜) for money (3:11)

  15. prophets give peaceful messages (3:5,11)

  16. use wicked balances and deceitful weights (6:11)

  17. rich men use violence and people speak lies (6:12)

  18. walk in the ways of Omri and Ahab (6:16)

  19. no upright men, all lie in wait for blood (7:2)

  20. prince and judge ask for reward (7:3)

  21. no trust among friends (7:5)

  22. family members are enemies (7:6)

Declaration of punishment

  1. Samaria will become desolate. (1:6)

  2. All idols will be broken to pieces. (1:7)

  3. The Lord will send enemy to Jerusalem and capture the people. (1:9,16)

  4. Evildoers will be spoiled. (2:4)

  5. The land will be destroyed. (2:10)

  6. The Lord will not hear them. (3:4)

  7. Prophets will have no vision and answer. (3:6-7)

  8. Jerusalem will become heaps. (3:12)

  9. The people of Judah will be captured to Babylon. (4:10)

  10. Troops will besiege the Lord’s people and smite the judge of Israel. (5:1)

  11. People of Israel will be trodden by Assyria. (5:3,5)

  12. The remnant of Judah will be scattered among the Gentiles. (5:7,8)

  13. The Lord’s people will be sick and dissatisfied. (6:13-15)

  14. The Lord’s people will be killed and the land will become desolate. (6:14,16)

  15. The Lord’s people shall bear the reproach. (6:16)

  16. The land shall be desolate. (7:13)

Messages of deliverance

  1. The Lord will do good to the upright. (2:7)

  2. The Lord will gather the remnant of Israel. (2:12)

  3. The king will lead them out. (2:13)

  4. In the last days, the house of the Lord shall be established in the mountain of the Lord. He will teach his people and judge by the law. There will be peace. The Lord shall reign in mount Zion forever. His kingdom shall come. (4:1-8)

  5. The Lord shall redeem the captives out of Babylon. (4:10-12)

  6. The Lord shall make his people strong. (4:13)

  7. A ruler shall come out of Bethlehem. He shall gather and feed the remnant. He shall deliver them from the Assyrian. (5:2-6)

  8. The Lord will cut off his enemies. (5:9)

  9. The Lord will execute vengeance upon the heathen by destroying their armies and strongholds and cutting off their images. (5:10-15)

  10. The Lord shall hear Micah and execute judgment upon the enemy. (7:7-10)

  11. The Lord will do marvelous things. He will pardon iniquity of the remnant. He will show them compassion and mercy. (7:18-20)